Earlier we talked about “What is Operating System ?” now let’s see "How the operating system works ?"
"An operating system is a software-like thing which runs your computer."
This is the very basic definition of an operating system. Nowadays almost every operating system has a GUI (Graphical User Interface) also many programmers use CLI (Command Line Interface) for setting up servers and many other things.
In your computer, the Operating system manages the two most important things which are
The Operating System control every task going on in your device like Apps, I/O Management, Device Drivers, etc. When you turn on your computer/device the first program which starts executing is your ROM (Read-Only Memory) which basically examines that whether everything is working properly or not. This can also be referred to as SELF TEST check CPU, memory, and you Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) for errors and store the result in a specific location. All the computer nowaday’s activating the hard disk drive (HDD), then it finds the first piece of the operating system: the BootStrap Loader.
The Bootstrap loader is a simple/small program loads the operating system and allows it to begin the operations. The Operating Systems consisting of a kernel loads the kernel first for example after the booting process in UNIX/LINUX systems is completed the first thing which comes into work is the Kernel. It then establishes the data structures that will hold the myriad signals, flags, and semaphores that are used to communicates. After all, this is done the bootstrap loader then forwards the control of the computer to the operating system.
The most famous and known operating system “Windows” uses a Hybrid kernel type architecture. It combines the features of the monolithic kernel and microkernel architecture. The actual kernel used by the Microsoft systems is the Windows NT(New Technology) Kernel.
The MAC OS X computers are using the XNU kernel. This is also said to be a part of the Darwin operating system. XNU is an acronym for X is NOT UNIX. This is also a Hybrid Kernel combining the Mach Kernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University.
Linux kernel is a free, open-source, monolithic, modular, Unix-like operating system kernel. It is the main component of the Linux based operating system (OS) and is the core interface between the computer’s hardware and its processes. The Linux kernel is used by Linux distributions alongside GNU tools and libraries. This combination is sometimes referred to as GNU/Linux. Popular Linux distributions include Ubuntu, Fedora, and Arch Linux.
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