Networking: Elements of Networking

Who governs the Internet?

The Internet is not governed, it has no single authority figure. The ultimate authority for where the Internet is going rests with the Internet Society, or ISOC.
ISOC is a voluntary membership organization whose purpose is to promote global information exchange through Internet technology.

  • ISOC appoints the IAB- Internet Architecture Board. They meet regularly to review standards and allocate resources, like addresses.
  • IETF- Internet Engineering Task Force. Another volunteer organization that meets regularly to discuss operational and technical problems.

Some interesting facts about computer networking are:

  • The Internet was invented by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989.
  • The Internet is controlled by 75 million servers.
  • The backbone of the internet is made by 550, 000 miles of underwater cable.
  • About one billion computer systems are connected to the internet.
  • About 3.2 billion people use the internet from which 1.7 billion internet users are Asians.
  • The Internet consists of five billion computing devices such as computers, phones, modems, switches, routers, etc.
  • According to Google, the Internet consists of 5 million Terabytes of data.
  • If the internet goes down for a day, approximately 200 billion emails and 3 billion Google searches would have to wait.
  • Approximately 204 million emails per minute are sending over the Internet. 70% of them are spam.
  • 269 billion emails are sent per day.
  • 30, 000 websites are hacked every day.
  • 50 million horsepower is required by the internet to keep running in the current state.
  • Approximately 9 million adults in Britain and 1/3rd of Italians have never used the internet while China has treatment camps for internet addicts.
  • Microsoft has more servers than Google. Microsoft owns over one million servers while Google has 900, 000.
  • Internet bots and malware generate 61.5% or nearly two-thirds of all the website traffic.
  • Approximately 1.7 trillion eurodollar worth of funds is spent online.
  • Tim Berners-Lee was knighted by Queen Elizabeth.
  • An email takes around 2 billion electrons to produce.
  • Online dating generates approximately $1 billion dollars every year.
  • Qwerty was designed to slow you down so that keys would not jam.

Computer networks mean an interconnection of autonomous (standalone) computers for information exchange. The connecting media could be a copper wire, optical fiber, microwave or satellite.

Networking Elements

The computer network includes the following networking elements:

  1. At least two computers
  2. Transmission medium either wired or wireless
  3. Protocols or rules that govern the communication
  4. Network software such as Network Operating System

Network Criteria:

The criteria that have to be met by a computer network are:

1. Performance

It is measured in terms of transit time and response time.

  • Transit time is the time for a message to travel from one device to another
  • Response time is the elapsed time between an inquiry and a response.

Performance is dependent on the following factors:

  • The number of users
  • Type of transmission medium
  • A capability of connected network
  • Efficiency of software

2. Reliability

It is measured in terms of

  • Frequency of failure
  • Recovery from failures
  • Robustness during catastrophe

3. Security

It means protecting data from unauthorized access.

Goals of Computer Networks: The following are some important goals of computer networks:

1. Resource Sharing –

Many organization has a substantial number of computers in operations, which are located apart. Ex. A group of office workers can share a common printer, fax, modem, scanner, etc.

2. High Reliability –

If there are alternate sources of supply, all files could be replicated on two or, machines. If one of them is not available, due to hardware failure, the other copies could be used.

3. Inter-process Communication –

Network users, located geographically apart, may converse in an interactive session through the network. In order to permit this, the network must provide almost error-free communications.

4. Flexible access –

Files can be accessed from any computer in the network. The project can be begun on one computer and finished on another.

5. Other goals include Distribution of processing functions, Centralized management, and allocation of network resources, Compatibility of dissimilar equipment and software, Good network performance, Scalability, Saving money, Access to remote information, Person to person communication, etc.

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